24 June 2013
After publishing Russia's Catacomb Saints, Fr. Seraphim translated for us writings of equal importance – the lives of the Optina elders. This series shows another phenomenon of true spirituality: eldership. In these days of rampant pseudo-eldership coming out off Mt. Athos, we need a model of genuine eldership.
(Optina and Its Era, by I. M. Kontzevitch, Jordanville, 1970 – in Russian)
Because the Soviets destroyed all religious materials they could find, copies of the original volumes of the Optina Elder series had become very rare. But Ivan & Helen Kontzevitch, then living in California, had almost all of the volumes in their private library. They had purchased them at a Paris sale in the 1940's, using all their savings to buy books at that sale. And then, 30 years later, they made these books available to Fr. Seraphim, who made them available to us. Do we see the God's Providence in this?
When living in Russia, Ivan Kontzevitch and his family had been in close relationship with Optina elders; both he and his brother, ROCOR Bishop Nektary, had been disciples of Elder Nektary. Ivan Kontzevitch wrote a book on the monastery, Optina and Its Era, just before he died (1965). On his deathbed he asked Platina to let "the English-speaking world know the genuineness of Optina, only genuineness and not its surrogate."
Here is the introduction to his book:
And Its Era
Its Significance in
the Spiritual and Cultural Life of Russia
by I.M. Kontzevitch
Optina Monastery is located within a few miles of Kozelsk in the Kaluga region south of Moscow. It is situated on the banks of a rapid river, the Zhizdra, and surrounded by a virgin forest, cutting it off from the world. Externally, the Optina Monastery, with its fort-olike walls and towers, and its four churches, looks like a grand white kremlin.
The exalted spiritual life of Optina harmonizes with its external beauty. The writer Gogol, after visiting Optina, described it exceptional spiritual atmosphere and benevolent influence upon everyone that came in contact with it.
Gogol left Dolbina, the estate of philosopher I.V. Kireyevsky, with M.A. Maximovitch to visit the nearby monastery of Optina. Two miles before reaching it, Gogol and his travelling companion decided to leave the carriage and continue on foot to the monastery itself. On the way they met a little peasant girl with a bowl of wild strawberries and wanted to buy them from her. But the girl, seeing that they were travellers, did not want to take any money from them and gave them her berries, saying, "It is not right to take anything from traveololers on pilgrimage." Amazed by this touching revelation of a child, Gogol remarked, 'This monastery spread piety in people, and I myself, " he continued, "have noticed more than once such an influence from monasteries."
This is what Gogol wrote to Count A.P. Tolstoy concerning his visit to Optina Pustyn in June, 1850:
"While travelling I stopped off in Optina Pustyn and carried away a remembrance that I shall never forget. I think that on Mt. Athos itself there is nothing better. Grace is visibly present there. One can even sense it clearly in the external serving (in church)... I have never seen such monks anywhere; with every one of them it appeared to me, converses everything heavenly. I did not ask them how they live, because their faces speak for themselves. The simplest brothers struck me with their bright angelic kindness, their simplicity of manners, their radiance. Even the workers in the monastery, the peasants and the inhabitants of the neighborhood, struck me in the same way. Several miles prior to reaching the monastery, one senses this spiritual fragrance: everything becomes friendlier, the boughs of the trees are lower, and the attention to a human being much deeper. You should by all means try to visit this monastery. Also don't forget to visit the Abbot in Little Yaroslavets, Antony, who is the blood-brother of the Optina Abbot (Moses) and also renowned for his holy life. The third brother is the Abbot of Sarov and also, they say, a very worthy leader."
Now I want to turn from historic remembrances to my own, and to depict for the reader that picture which once revealed itself to me as I was approaching the monastery. Every time I approached Optina it evoked an irresistible impression in me even from a distance. Bt there was one particular time when i saw something unusual and unforgettable. I was travelling from the railroad station to the monastery, and suddenly, as we turned, I saw as if suspended in the very air, rising from the ancient forest, a white kremlin, or a city, whose tall white belfry towered over the walls and churches below. All this rose from the ancient forest behind it. A white cloud of fog lay at the foot of the monastery wall, symbolically separating it from the earth, lifting it to the heights. Another white cloud, far away on the horizon, hovered over the monastery, and in that cloud lightnings flickered ceaselessly as though reflecting the heavenly, uncreated Light of Mt. Tabor, the bearer of which was Optina Monastery.
That was the external impression, but when I settled within the walls and became an Optina pilgrim, my inward sentiments surpassed all my expectations, in spite of the fact that I was relatively well-prepared for that and already knew much from books and had heard stories concerning the Elders from witnesses.
To transmit this impression to one who has not experienced it is impossible! Here is a glimpse:
It is an early summer morning. You are walking to church. There is a fresh breeze. Around you is the wonderful murmur of the deep forest, whose fragrance hovers all over. and in front of you, against the forest, is the grandeur of the white citadel. There is Optina. At the same time, you are experiencing a genuine sense of God's presence, and from this comes fear for each thought, each action, each feeling, together with an intangible peace in your soul, and joy, which so wondrously harmonizes with the external surroundings.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF OPTINA MONASTERY
The significance of Optina Monastery in Russia's spiritual life is very great. It is the best representative of that spiritual revival which Russia experienced in the 18th century.
Located in the midst of the forest and cut off from the world by the river Zhizdra, Optina was an excellent spot for an anchoretic, contemplative life. It was a wonderful spiritual oasis where the charismatic gifts of the first centuries of Christian monasticism flourished anew. [note from Joanna: these charismatic gifts bear absolutely no resemblance to the cheap substitute of psychic phenomena manifesting in today's charismatic movement.] These gifts received full expression in the special ministry of eldership, or "starchestvo". And truly, Optina Elders were renowned for the greatest of all gifts – the gift of discernment, as well as clairvoyance, gifts of healing, and other miracles. This is a prophetic ministry; as in apostolic times it was performed by prophets, so also now the Elders would console the suffering or reveal the future, according to the will of God.
In 1829 Elder Leonid (1768-1841) arrived. In Schema he bore the name Leo, and it was he who founded Eldership in Optina. Strong-willed, he regally opens the line of great Elders. He is joined in 1834 by Elder Macarius, known for his publishing and translating activity. Under his supervision, patristic writings were translated into Russian and published. But the zenith of Optina's glory was reached by Elder Ambrose, disciple of both Leo and Macarius.
Reconstruction of the monastery itself began only in 1795, when Platon, Metropolitan of Moscow, took notice of it and appointed Hieromonk Joseph as abbot-builder there; he was followed by Fr. Abramius. Fr. Abramius' presence at Optina came about in the following way: Metropolitan Platon decided he would install coenobitic life in Optina similar to that of Pesnosha Monastery, an outstanding monastery in his diocese. Its initiator was Fr. Macarius of Penosha Monastery, a disciple of Theodore of Sanaxar who was in turn in close contact with St. Paisius Velichkovsky, the Sarov Elders, and St. Tikhon of Zadonsk. Metropolitan Platon asked Fr. Macarius to choose one monk from his brotherhood for the task of restoring Optina. Fr. Macarius answered, "I don't have such men, Your Eminence, unless perhaps I give you my gardener, Abramius."
Abramius was introduced to the Metropolitan. Sickly and humble, he attempted to refuse, but his elders told him that this was the will of God, and Abramius went to Optina.
The monastery was in total disarray. "There wasn't even a towel to wipe hands on." The brotherhood consisted of three very old monks. In his sorrow Abramius went back to his elder in Pesnosha, who took him along to visit local landowners. As a result, Abramius returned to Optina with two carts filled with things they needed. Elder Macarius sent twelve brothers to help him and the number of mnastics began to increase rapidly. Fr. Macarius encouraged and directed Abramius all the time, and the monastery was brought into total good order.
During the War of 1812 the brothers hid in the forested gully and in caves; five years later Abramius died. He was succeeded by Marcellus and Daniel, but Optina came to fruition under the next Abbot, Archimandrite Moses. Externally, more monastery churches were built, living quarters were improved, eight guesthouses were constructed, etc. Besides this, the monastery possessed large orchards, gardens and field. The main income came from the pilgrims who were attracted to Optina Monastery by it special spirit, so reminiscent of the ancient ascetics of monasticism. But the man responsible for the installation, nurture and preservation of the ancient wisdom, presenting it to the modern age, was Archimandrite Moses, who was himself so aptly called "one of the ancients."*
* Optina Staretz Moses, St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, Platina, California, 1976 (in Russian).
• • •
also see this article
http://www.roca.org/OA/44/44d.htm this link is broken
Elder Leonid October 11/24, 1841
Elder Macarius Sept. 7/20, 1860
Archimandrite Moses June 16/29, 1862
Elder Anthony August 7/20, 1865
Elder Hilarion Sept. 18/Oct. 1, 1873
Elder Ambrose October 10/23, 1891
Elder Joseph May 9/22, 1911
Elder Barsonouphius April 1/14, 1913
St. Anatole, the Younger July 30/August 12, 1922
St. Nectarius April 29/May 12, 1928
Archbishop Andrew [Fr. Adrian] June 29/July 12, 1979
Bishop Nektary January 24/February 6, 1983
other links I found worth including here
http://www.roca.org/OA/97/97k.htm this link is broken
Put broken links through the Way Back Machine https://web.archive.org